In 2015, the small Lothian Health Board in the Scottish Lowlands was taken to court by a 73-year-old woman with arthritis. The health board had taken the decision to stop funding homeopathic treatments. The woman had called for a judicial review of their choice, and the courts came down firmly on the side of the health board, stating:
“…A different decision, namely, to continue spending money on a service whose efficacy was not established, would have been unreasonable”
This may seem something of a deathblow to homeopaths, however support for alternative practices remains widespread. Known homeopath Prince Charles recently thrust the topic back into the limelight after proposing homeopathy be used to treat animals to combat overuse of antibiotics on farms. Ever popular Health Secretary Mr Hunt is rumoured to have supported it (Mr Hunt has since denied this). Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn’s support, at time of writing, stands unwavered. Should it?
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The term homeopathy was coined by a German physician named Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann in the 1700s. He based his ideas on the “Principle of Similars,” – literally like cures like. The reasoning was simple enough: if, in large doses, a substance creates symptoms, in lower concentrations it will remove them. The more diluted a substance, the more effective at removing the symptoms it’ll be. Fortunate, considering most original homeopathic compounds are toxic. One common designation is “NC”, where C signifies that a substance is diluted by a ratio of 1:100 and N stands for the number of times the substance has been diluted. In the least diluted form, the one advocated by Hahnemann (30C), the ratio of active ingredient to water is 1:1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.
For perspective, one molecule of active substance in a 30C homeopathic remedy would require more than all the atoms in the solar system. Homeopaths will navigate around this inconvenience by stating water retains a “memory” of the active substance. This is crap. America’s National Institutes of Health (NIH) points out that the key concepts of water memory in homeopathy are inconsistent with the fundamentals of chemistry and physics. Tim Minchin more humorously notes:
“It’s a miracle! Take physics and bin it! Water has memory! And whilst its memory of a long lost drop of onion juice is infinite, it somehow forgets all the poo it’s had in it.”
A fact still trotted out regularly by defenders of homeopathy is its initial success in apparently treating illnesses. Indeed, one London hospital practicing homeopathy had far fewer deaths than conventional hospitals in the area in treating 19th century cholera outbreaks – a staggering score against the conventional medicine of the time. Of course, with the benefit of 20/20 hindsight, the higher death rates in conventional hospitals can be chalked up to poor practices – bloodletting is not remembered for its illness curing capabilities, after all. Homeopaths will also point to treatments such as radiation therapy to treat cancer, antivenom, or the original smallpox vaccine as proof of the “like cures like” concept. But in the face of modern medicine, the above examples of antivenom and radiation therapy have been subjected to the rigour of randomised control trials to prove their safety and effectiveness (oncologists don’t throw cancer patients into nuclear reactors with crossed fingers).
Studying the efficacy of homeopathy, the NIH states, is difficult. Shockingly, it’s hard to examine the effects of a medicine when that medicine has little to no active ingredient beyond just placebo. Some of the more comprehensive reviews of homeopathy include a 2002 systematic review (or study of studies) in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, and a 2005 meta analysis in the Lancet, where researchers compared trials of homeopathic and conventional medicines. In large, well-designed trials, there was no evidence of homeopathy being more effective than placebo. Another review, released by the National Health and Medicine Research Council (NHMRC) said just as much. As did a 2010 House of Commons report into the matter.
The NHS Choices website echoes these sentiments, but goes on to say:
“Two NHS hospitals provide homeopathy, and some GP practices also offer it”
Do you agree this should be the case?